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The welfare of invertebrate animals in research: Can science's next generation improve th
     
 
Robyn J. Crook
University of Texas Health Science Center
Department of Integrative Biology and Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77054
robyn.crook@uth.tmc.edu
Invertebrates have a long history of use in scientific research but there has been little concern for their welfare until very recently. Unlike vertebrate research animals, whose uses are closely regulated, invertebrate animals are minimally protected. In some countries regulations extend to a few species, but the vast majority of invertebrate animals can be used in research with no oversight, protections or legal regulation. Whether this is cause for concern depends on the ability of invertebrate animals to experience pain, suffering or distress as a result of husbandry and experimental procedures. To date there is minimal evidence that invertebrate animals are capable of experiencing such affective states, but this is largely due to very little experimental effort devoted to testing such hypotheses. In this article I review....
 
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