The impact of technology in modern science is unequivocal. As scientific thought and design moves from traditional reductionism towards holism, advances in technology have altered the landscape of modern science. The modern systems biology approach models the dynamics and structure of biological systems. Implementing systems biology models in conjunction with imaging provides a way to refine understanding of biological systems.
Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has emerged as a powerful analytical tool enabling the direct molecular mapping of many types of tissue. Specifically, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization (MALDI) represents one of the most broadly applicable IMS technologies. In recent years, advances in solid state laser technology, mass spectrometry instrumentation, computer technology, and experimental methodology have produced IMS systems capable of unprecedented data acquisition speeds (>50 pixels/second). In applications of this technology, throughput is an important consideration when designing an IMS experiment. As IMS becomes more widely adopted, continual improvements in experimental setups will be important to address biologically and clinically relevant time scales.
The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been widely used as a model organism to study the molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression in eukaryotic cells. In the yeast Cell Wall Integrity Pathway (CWI), the protein Kinase C, Pkc1, activates the MAP Kinase Slt2, which in turn targets the transcription factors Rlm1 and SBF (Swi4-Swi6) and the transcriptional complex Paf1C, to modulate and control the expression of cell wall integrity genes. To better describe the connection between the CWI components and the transcriptional regulation of the cell integrity genes, a series of Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed. Our results reveal that the MAPK Slt2, associates to the promoter of several cell wall housekeeping genes like FKS1, MNN1 and GAS1. The expression of these genes is reduced in slt2 and pkc1 mutant strains. However, .....
Background: For more than 50 years investigators raised concerns regarding insufficient nutrition education in medical schools. Many barriers, such as curricular guidance remain, hindering its progress. This study addressed curricular barriers by (1) implementing 4 teaching strategies into an applied nutrition medical school course and (2) evaluating which strategy was most preferred amongst students.
Methods: The investigators incorporated 4 teaching strategies into an applied nutrition course for medical students. An end of course survey measured the most preferred strategy and a pre/posttest measured the change of nutrition knowledge.
Results: Seventy-seven students (n=36 male) completed the course. A total of 59.5% of students preferred the student directed curriculum (SDC) compared to ....
This review discusses the role of redox-sensitive cysteine cathepsins during MHC-II- restricted MOG antigen processing, and MOG- induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The phagosomal redox environment can modify the activity of multiple cysteine cathepsins and these proteases can, in turn, perturb antigen processing and presentation, particularly of MOG. Mice deficient in NOX2 exhibit protection from EAE, which is likely due to inefficient MOG- antigen processing and presentation, and less likely to be due to other T cell mediated effects. NOX2 controlled redox-sensitive cysteine cathepsins B, S, and L are redundant for the processing and presentation of MOG antigens and EAE, despite older inhibitor studies suggesting otherwise, but mice simultaneously deficient in multiple cathepsins (via genetic or pharmacological inhibition) have been shown to be protected from EAE, and have a MHC-II processing deficiency. Collectively .....
Protein phosphorylation ensures the accurate sequence of events underlying multiple signaling pathways, such as cell survival and cell proliferation. Using a combination of cell biology and molecular techniques, Vera et al.  have discovered an active role of Greatwall kinase in cell proliferation, transformation and invasiveness of human cancers through the Akt pathway, one of the most acknowledged oncogenic signaling networks in cells. This paper opens new horizons for human therapies in which Greatwall kinase can be used as a potential oncogenic marker and/or as a potential therapeutic target in aggressive human cancers.
Antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria has become a serious public health concern as infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria are becoming increasingly difficult to treat. In a recent publication by Hatosy and Martiny, the diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes in marine systems was explored using functional metagenomics. Work from these authors, as well as other studies of antimicrobial resistance in non-clinical environments, emphasize the need for a One Health approach to address problems associated with antimicrobial use and resistance.
Saturated N-heterocycles are of growing interest in drug discovery due to their increased solubility, bioavailability, and pharmacokinetics over their aromatic counterparts. Recently, the use of Stannyl Amine Protocol (SnAP) reagents have shown a great promise for the direct synthesis of a broad range of saturated N-heterocycles.
With the help of density functional theory based first-principles calculations and a tight-binding model Hamiltonian we studied the origin of magnetic properties in the ferromagnet MnBi. The model Hamiltonian show that direct electron hopping within the nearest and next nearest Bi-p orbitals are responsible for the large band dispersions. The Mn-d bands are fairly narrow with band widths < 2 eV. A Stoner model with spin-orbit coupling leads to the observed negative MAE with this Hamiltonian.
A mom rushes into the pediatrician’s office with her screaming two-year old girl, Becca. Becca has been irritable for several days and has not been eating, but now she also has a fever and is crying incessantly. The pediatrician evaluates Becca’s middle ear with an otoscope, knowing that an ear infection (i.e., otitis media), is the most common childhood illness (Cripps et al., 2005). The otoscope has been used for centuries with the first depiction illustrated in 1364. Since then the otoscope has undergone many advances to improve its function and ease of use, but has remained relatively unchanged since the development of the pneumatic otoscope in 1864. This 1864-based model is what the pediatricians use currently.