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Journal of Postdoctoral Research (JPR) - Vol. 2 No. 4 April 2014
Progress in Mediating Cell Functions on Honeycomb Substratum
Xiaohui Wu


The Role of Sleep in Motor Learning
Rajprasad Loganathan


Current Understanding of Proton Conduction in Confined Ionomeric Systems
Shudipto Dishari


A Flexible and All-Solid-State Supercapacitor with Unique Self-Healing Property
Chuizhou Meng


Making a case for the role of DNA repair in autism
Aditi Nadkarni


Genetic network underlying the induction and formation of cranial placodes in the Preplacodal Region
Safia B. Khatri


Discovery of Selective Vitamin D Receptor Coregulator Inhibitor
Preetpal S Sidhu


A new IPSEpro® library for the simulation of binary mixtures of real fluids in power cycle analysis
Maria E. Mondejar and Marcus Thern.



Author(s)
Xiaohui Wu

Address
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wickenden Building, Room 419, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7207, USA
Abstract: The clinic needs of advanced biomaterials for tissue regeneration have driven the study on pores, ridges, fibers, and other microstructured features to mimic the topographies available on basement membranes. Recently, the honeycomb topography with well-ordered pores has drawn increasing attention due to its significant influence on cell functions and the effects can be cell type dependent. To gain potential application in tissue regeneration, we have to obtain good understanding of the interaction between honeycomb pores and cells. In this review article, we will introduce the deep meanings of research on honeycomb topography, review several useful approaches to fabrication of honeycomb patterns, describe topographical influence on application in biomaterials, and discuss the regulation of cell function on honeycomb patterns.

Author(s)
Rajprasad Loganathan

Address
Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, Kansas City, Kansas 66160
Abstract: Numerous factors affect motor learning, and its subsequent consolidation into effortlessly retrievable motor memories. Evidence from sleep research suggests a role for sleep in motor learning and motor memory consolidation. Optimal motor performance on a recently learned task is facilitated by sleep-mediated consolidation of motor memories. Yet, sleep independent motor memory consolidation occurs for few tasks and do not appear to hamper performance. Growing evidence, however, is suggestive of a facilitative role for sleep in motor learning. Meanwhile the mechanisms underlying sleep-mediated consolidation of motor memories are not clear, and the possible relevance of hippocampus to motor memory in the context of sleep-state awaits exploration.

Author(s)
Shudipto Dishari

Address
Chemical Engineering, Penn State, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
Abstract: Ion containing polymers (or ionomers), when confined into several nm to several hundreds of nm thick films, behave very differently from bulk membranes. Understanding the proton transport mechanism in thin ionomer layers coated over catalysts is crucial for further improvement of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance. This review paper summarizes the current understanding of proton conduction properties of supported thin ionomer (mainly Nafion) films. In thin films, the proton conduction properties may not be governed by the amount of water sorbed. Water molecules in such systems experience strong confinement, behave like bound immobilized water and fail to create percolated active proton conduction pathways. Therefore, in confined ionomeric systems, some factors other than water uptake need consideration to clearly understand the observed proton transport. These factors include solvation of ionic groups of polymer, local concentration of proton (H+hydrophilic domains, and, orientational relaxation dynamics of water.

Author(s)
Chuizhou Meng

Address
Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
Abstract: This Research Highlight introduces a newly online-published research paper on the achievement of a novel mechanically and electrically self-healing supercapacitor. The fabrication strategy, self-healing mechanism, and key device performance are briefly presented. Finally the positive impact of this work on the ongoing research in advanced future energy storage devices is discussed.

Author(s)
Aditi Nadkarni

Address
Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA.
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by behavioral and social impairments and genetic predisposition. The genetic heterogeneity of autism and the complexity of the disease have made it difficult to delineate one mechanism or diagnostic biomarker that influences ASD risk. Mounting evidence points towards exposure to DNA damaging environmental pollutants as a major ASD risk factor. Studies have also identified genomic instability, defective DNA repair and greater oxidative DNA damage using ASD animal models and patient samples. This review highlights the salient findings that connect defective DNA repair with ASD risk and makes a case for the need of functional DNA repair assays characterizing the role of DNA repair mechanisms in autism etiology.

Author(s)
Safia B. Khatri

Address
Department of Neuroscience, BCM, BCM295, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Abstract: Vertebrate cranial sensory organs and their ganglia originate from thickened ectoderm called cranial placodes. Despite the cellular and functional diversity of cranial sense organs, their precursors derive from the ectoderm adjacent to the anterior neural plate region called preplacodal region (PPR). The PPR is characterized by the expression of a unique set of transcription factors referred as PPR genes, which include Foxi, ERNI, Datch, GATA, Dlx, Six, and Eya. The expression analysis of these genes does not correlate precisely with phenotypes in the PPR. Knockouts of all PPR genes do not show complete loss of any cranial placodes. However, Foxi3 and Dlx5 genes are expressed early in the PPR in complementary fashion, with Dlx5 localized anteriorly and Foxi3 localized posteriorly. In addition, mutants of Dlx gene family members show defective anterior cranial members do not show defects in the induction of cranial placodes. All these genes are considered as PPR genes because of their expression in the PPR, but not all of them contribute to PPR induction.placodes, and Foxi3 knockout mice show defects in posterior placodes. On the other hand, Six and Eya gene family members, mentioned as definitive PPR genes in previous studies, are expressed after Foxi3 and Dlx5. Moreover, mutants of Six and Eya gene family Vertebrate cranial sense organs largely arise from ectodermal thickening, the placodes. Albeit diverse in function,.........

Author(s)
Preetpal S Sidhu

Address
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UW Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA
Abstract: Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) is known to be involved in calcium homeostasis and recently, for its role in cell growth and differentiation. Here, we present the research highlight for discovery of selective inhibitor which blocks the interactions between VDR and co-regulators. This review discusses the anti-cancer effect of lead inhibitors in cancer cell-lines and its role in regulation of various VDR related genes.

Author(s)
Maria E. Mondejar and Marcus Thern.

Address
Department of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
Abstract: Increasing efforts to produce power from renewable resources and improve the efficiency of current industrial processes have turned the spotlight on organic Rankine cycles (ORC). The use of refrigerant mixtures in these cycles offers a wide range of possibilities for fluid selection and optimization. Moreover, zeotropic mixtures are reported to yield better cycle performances due to their better thermal match with the source and sink streams. In this work a new IPSEpro® library for the simulation of power cycles using binary mixtures was developed. With this library the working fluid can be defined as the mixture of any pair of suitable fluids contained in the Refprop database.
 
     
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