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Journal of Postdoctoral Research (JPR) - Vol. 6, No. 5, May 2018
 
Publication Delays in Peer-Reviewed Journals of Otolaryngology, Audiology And Speech Language Pathoogy
Yike Li, MD, PhD, and David Zealer, PhD
The Role of TET Proteins During Development
Rita Khoueiry, PhD and Kian Peng Koh, PhD.
Regulation of Contractile Protein S-Nitrosation in Preterm Myometrium Underlies the Dysfunctional Relaxation to Nitric Oxide
Iain L. O. Buxton and Scott D. Barnett
Editorial: Leptin - The Central Regulator of Starvation
Vidisha Raje, PhD
The Role of Leptin in Maintaining Plasma Glucose During Starvation
Rachel J. Perry and Gerald I. Shulman
Circadian-tumor suppressor crosstalk: Emerging opportunities in cancer chronotherapy
Tetsuya Gotoh, Xianlin Zou, Carla V. Finkielstein
Editorial: Injecting new life into intracellular delivery methods
Kathy Myers Gschweng, Ph.D.
Recent Advances in Mammalian Cell Transfection Techniques
Andy Tay, PhD, and Nicholas Melosh, PhD.
Stock Risk Assessment via Multi-Objective Genetic Programming
Amirhessam Tahmassebi, Amir H. Gandomi, Anke Meyer-Baese
Therapeutic Potential of Biologically Active Resin Glycoside Natural Products
Ehesan U. Sharif, PhD.
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Author(s)
Yike Li, MD, PhD, and David Zealer, PhD
Address
Department of Otolaryngology, VU Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, 37232, U.S.A.  
Abstract:

The primary objective of this study was to investigate publication delays in scholarly peer‐reviewed journals in the field of otolaryngology, audiology and speech pathology. A list of 58 journals indexed in the Journal Citation Report by Thomson Reuters were included.  Bibliographic content of publications in these journals from 2007-2017 was extracted from the National Center for Biotechnology Information databases using the “RISMed” package of R. The acceptance delay was defined as the time lapse between the submission date and the acceptance date. The editorial delay was the time lapse between the acceptance date and the publication date. These data were plotted using the “ggplot” function. A total of 28084 articles were eligible for data analysis. 


Author(s)
Rita Khoueiry, PhD and Kian Peng Koh, PhD.
Address
KU Leuven Department of Development and Regeneration, Stem Cell Institute Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. 
Abstract:

In 2009, a new family of DNA modifying enzymes, the Tet-eleven translocation family was identified as 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) and Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases. This family of enzymes comprises three proteins TET1, TET2 and TET3 that share a carboxyl-terminal core catalytic domain consisting of a conserved cysteine-rich domain, a double stranded β-helix domain and binding sites for the cofactors Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate. At their amino-terminal region, TET1 and TET3 have a CXXC DNA-binding domain. Interestingly, during evolution, the segment encoding the CXXC domain of TET2 was separated from the region encoding the catalytic domain and is now encoded separately by a neighboring gene, IDAX (also called CXXC4).


Author(s)
Iain L. O. Buxton and Scott D. Barnett
Address
Myometrial Function Laboratory at the UNR, Reno School of Medicine, Reno, Nevada 89557-0318, USA
Abstract:

Preterm labor leads to preterm delivery in over 50% of cases.  Current treatment for preterm labor is inadequate and relies on findings in other smooth muscles. No treatment can prevent labor to allow a fetus to remain in the womb until term.  Regulation of contraction/relaxation of the uterine smooth muscle is poorly understood.  Recent work in our laboratory has revealed major disparity between term and preterm human uterine smooth muscle that suggests new approach to drug discovery.


Author(s)
Vidisha Raje, PhD
Address
Department of Pharmacology, UVA, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903, USA
Abstract:

Humans have evolved to store energy in three major forms: carbohydrate, fat, and protein. In the liver, insulin triggers the storage of circulating glucose as glycogen, which can be readily mobilized to glucose and is the fuel of choice where instantaneous energy is required, such as during conditions of stress and the onset of starvation. However, liver glycogen accounts for <1% of the total stored energy. Skeletal muscle is also a major site of storage of glycogen (about 2/3 of the total glycogen) and protein and accounts for 15% of the total stored energy. The majority of energy stores, >80%, are in the form of fat, stored as lipid droplets in adipocytes1. Teleologically, this makes a lot of sense given that humans have been hunter-gatherers and had to go for prolonged periods of starvation in search of food. On the contrary, the modern man is exposed to a much more nutrient replete environment. The human body, however, is still adapted for efficiently storing any ingested nutrients as energy reserves in different tissues for periods of critical need such as starvation. 


Author(s)
Rachel J. Perry and Gerald I. Shulman
Address
Departments of Internal Medicine and Cellular & Molecular Physiology
Yale University School of Medicine
Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Abstract:

For 20 years it has been known that concentrations of leptin, a hormone produced by the white adipose tissue (WAT) largely in proportion to body fat, drops precipitously with starvation, particularly in lean humans and animals. The role of leptin to suppress the thyroid and reproductive axes during a prolonged fast has been well defined; however, the impact of leptin on metabolic regulation has been incompletely understood. However emerging evidence suggests that, in starvation, hypoleptinemia increases activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, promoting WAT lipolysis, increasing hepatic acetyl-CoA concentrations, and maintaining euglycemia. In addition, leptin may be largely responsible for mediating a shift from a reliance upon glucose metabolism (absorption and glycogenolysis) to fat metabolism (lipolysis increasing gluconeogenesis) which preserves substrates for the brain, heart, and other critical organs. In this way a leptin-mediated glucose-fatty acid cycle appears to maintain glycemia and permit survival in starvation.


Author(s)
Tetsuya Gotoh, Xianlin Zou, Carla V. Finkielstein
Address
Biocomplexity Institute, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA.
Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan 
Abstract:

Previously, cancer treatment modalities relied primarily on chemotherapeutic agents; nowadays, advances in rationally-designed drugs and targeted therapies have enabled the manipulation of cancer-specific regulatory molecules that are frequently mutated and globally identified in various cancers. Regardless the approach, the objective for controlling cancer progression has always been to attenuate, eliminate, or control the neomorphic activity of target driver mutations in tumors by maintaining steady levels of therapeutic agents. As precision medicine gains momentum, so does the possibility of customizing individual patients’ treatments to the “time-of-day” when tumor cells exhibit the highest susceptibility to therapeutics (1). However, a gap exists in our knowledge regarding the times at which therapeutically-targeted molecules are likely to be most susceptible to drugs and yield the greatest cellular effect. As a result, there is a need to unveil “when” and “where” druggable targets are in the cell and “to what extent” the tumor’s time-keeping system differs from normal tissue (Fig. 1A). Defining priorities that address those needs across the hierarchical system of organization will allow researchers to find the best time-windows where delivery of treatment modalities can be most effective. 


Author(s)
Kathy Myers Gschweng, Ph.D.
Address
Department of Psychiatry, Semel Institute of Neuroscience and Human Behavior, UCLA, Los Angeles 90095, USA.
Abstract:

Effective methods for intracellular delivery of nucleic acid, protein or other cargo presents an ongoing challenge for both basic research needs and clinical applications. With the expansion of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing for research and therapeutic purposes (Fellmann, Gowen et al. 2017) and with recent clinical successes of genetically modified cell therapies for cancer treatment (Brudno and Kochenderfer 2018), improvements to existing gene delivery technologies have been highly sought after (Singh, Shi et al. 2017). The main approaches can be generally categorized as viral, chemical, or physical techniques. In their review, Tay and Melosh describe these different approaches for cellular transduction in mammalian systems with a focus on technological improvements made within the last year to each (Tay and Melosh, 2018).


Author(s)
Andy Tay, PhD, and Nicholas Melosh, PhD.
Address
Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford, CA 94305;
Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, NUS, Singapore 117583

Abstract:

Cell transfection is an essential step for gene editing and intracellular delivery of cargoes such as mRNA and proteins. Significant improvements have been made to reduce the cytotoxicity and to improve efficiency associated with transfection over the few decades. Nevertheless, with new, exciting biological questions, the demand for the ideal transfection technique with high throughput, single cell transfection ability and control of cargo dosage has increased. This review focuses on recent innovations in cell transfection techniques, and discusses the pros and cons of each method.


Author(s)
Amirhessam Tahmassebi, Amir H. Gandomi, Anke Meyer-Baese
Address
Department of Scientific Computing, FSU, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4120, USA
School of Business, SIT, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, USA
Abstract:

Recent exponential growth of investors in stock markets brings the idea to develop a predictive model to forecast the total risk of investment in stock markets. In this paper, an evolutionary approach was proposed to predict the total risk in stock investment based on an S&P 500 database in a time period of 1991-2010 employing a multi-objective genetic programming along with an adaptive regression by mixing algorithm. The reasonable results suggest that the proposed model can be applied to various stock databases to assess the total risk of investment. The proposed model along with stock selection decision support systems can overcome the disadvantages of weighted scoring stock selection.


Author(s)
Ehesan U. Sharif, PhD.
Address
Department of Chemistry, Arcus Biosciences, 3928 Point Eden Way, Hayward, CA 94545, USA
Abstract:

Resin glycosides are naturally occurring oligosaccharides, primarily found in the morning glory plants (convolvulaceous family). The unique structural feature of this class of natural products is the presence of a macrolactone ring. The hydrophobic side-chain of the macrolactone maintains a fine balance on the highly polar polysaccharide backbone, making them amphiphilic. Various parts of the morning glory plant have been used as folk medicines for centuries throughout the world.  The commentary bellow emphasizes on the potential application of resin glycosides in the development of new therapies. 

 
     
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